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Durability

Fullerene is highly efficacious in removing active oxygen species, and it is known that fullerene does not have only “high” but also “durable” antioxidation effect.
In terms of durability, an indispensable thing that should be described here is fullerene’s mechanism of removing active oxygen. Previous researches have proposed two possible mechanisms of this active oxygen removal: taking up active oxygen (active oxygen absorption type), or degrading active oxygen enzymatically (active oxygen degradation type). This unique mechanism derives its “strong and durable” antioxidation power.

The following is experimental data that demonstrated the durable antioxidation ability of fullerene.

Durable inhibitation of cell death

t-BuOOH, which produces lipid radicals, was applied to HaCaT cells. When fullerene was added beforehand, we observed that it inhibited t-BuOOH-inducing cell death even after 11 hours, as compared to when it was not added.
Similarly, we also found that when UV light was exposed to HaCaT cells and added vitamin C, α-tocopherol and fullerene, the servival rate of the cell added fullerene was high even after 20 hours, as compared to when vitamin C derivatives and α-tocopherol were used. Furthermore, in the same experiment, there was not much change in the low cell survival rates even when the concentrations of vitamin C derivatives and α-tocopherol were increased. On the other hand, it was observed that the cell servival rates increase as fullerene's concentration will be higher.

We have also carried out experiments to discern the hydroxyl radical removal ability using ESR, and to obtain data to confirm the inhibition of caspase-3/7 activity.

Although there are many good antioxidative ingredients such as vitamin C and astaxanthin, we should conclude that fullerene is superior in terms of “durability”.